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Play the video to watch Professor Mikael Knip introduce the module
I am Mikael Knip and I am a Research Director at the University of Helsinki. Type 1 diabetes is a common chronic disease, especially among children. It can actually be diagnosed at any age, but about half are diagnosed before adulthood and the other half at a later age.
Download translated transcript: Spanish

Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic cells. This module explores that disease process in detail and examines the changing prevalence and implications of the condition.

Learning outcomes

By the end of this module, you will be able to:

Explain the natural history of type 1 diabetes, including silent or asymptomatic diabetes

Explain the characteristic symptoms and stages of type 1 diabetes among children and adolescents

Plan the care of children and adolescents where type 1 diabetes is suspected

Contributors

Author

Mikael Knip (MD, PhD) has been a Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Helsinki since 2000 and Chief Physician at the HUCH Children's Hospital up to 2018, as well as a project manager at the Department of Paediatrics, Tampere University Hospital. Currently he works as a Research Director at the University of Helsinki. He graduated from the University of Oulu with a licentiate degree in medicine in 1976 and a doctorate in medicine in 1983.

Professor Knip’s research focuses on type 1 diabetes and other immune-mediated diseases in children and adolescents. He has published more than 600 original papers and over 200 other scientific articles. He has been one of the principal investigators on the Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study from its start in 1994. 

In 2017, he received the Matti Äyräpää Award for research into the origins of childhood diabetes. Recently he received the J.W. Runeberg Award for pioneering work in the field of type 1 diabetes. He has also received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Tartu, the Johnny Ludvigsson Science Prize in recognition of long-term and successful research into childhood diabetes, and the Maud Kuistila Prize for Merited Educator of Medical Researchers.

Duality of Interest: None declared

Date: Spring 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author






Author, Assessment setter

Eleanor Kennedy has a BSc in Biochemistry from the University of Glasgow in Scotland and a PhD in molecular neuropharmacology from the University of Leicester in England. Following three years as a postdoctoral student at the University of California, San Diego, working on thrombin-mediated gene expression in the brain, Dr Kennedy worked at the University of Geneva in Switzerland studying the intracellular signalling pathways that stimulate insulin secretion.

She subsequently undertook a full-time MBA at Cranfield School of Management, which was followed by four years as Research Manager and Director at Diabetes UK. Since 2005, she has run her own company – ED Kennedy Consulting Ltd – and has worked for a wide range of clients. These include the NIHR Diabetes Research Network, the NIHR Dementia and Neurodegenerative Disease Research Network, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, Diabetes UK, the Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation, the Diabetes Wellness Network Sweden, the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, the Royal College of Pathologists, the Department of Health and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes.

With over a decade of teaching experience with the Open University and in running diabetes diploma initiatives with the British Medical Journal and in setting up other blended learning projects for clients in the Middle East, Eleanor also continues to be a regular contributor to diabetes publications covering research and development for lay and specialist audiences.

In 2018, Dr Kennedy was commissioned to create and build the platform for the EASD’s e-learning programme and continues this work today as Programme Director for the project.

Duality of interest: None declared
Date: Winter 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Management of type 1 diabetes in adults

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2021 consensus report:
    Author

Course: Multimorbidity and diabetes

  • Module 1: Type 1 diabetes and comorbidity:
    Author
  • Module 2: Diabetes in an ageing society - the role of multimorbidity:
    Author

Course: Lifestyle intervention

  • Module 1: Understanding the causes of type 2 diabetes and how to achieve remission:
    Author
  • Module 2: Promoting physical activity for people with diabetes: an overview:
    Author

Course: Beta cell biology

  • Module 1: Stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic beta cells:
    Author
  • Module 2: Epigenetics and the beta cell:
    Author
  • Module 3: Exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells and its role in type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Patient education and support

  • Module 1: An introduction to patient education in diabetes:
    Author

Course: Diabetic neuropathy

  • Module 1: Screening and diagnosis of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Author
  • Module 2: Pathophysiology and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Author
  • Module 3: Management of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Author

Course: Metabolic surgery

  • Module 1: Mechanisms of metabolic surgery:
    Author
  • Module 2: Metabolic surgery for obesity and type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Hypoglycaemia

  • Module 1: Reducing hypoglycaemia:
    Author
  • Module 2: Hypoglycaemia in older people:
    Author
  • Module 3: Fear of hypoglycaemia:
    Author

Course: Obesity and diabetes

  • Module 1: Obesity and the pathogenesis and outcomes of type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  • Module 1: NAFLD — epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis:
    Author
  • Module 2: NAFLD — prevention and treatment:
    Author

Course: Real-world evidence

  • Module 1: An introduction to real-world evidence:
    Author

Course: Insulin resistance

  • Module 1: Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Therapeutic inertia

  • Module 1: Therapeutic inertia in primary care:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Therapeutic inertia in type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Diabetes and the Hajj

  • Module 1: Practical management of diabetes during Hajj:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Diabetes, Hajj and COVID-19:
    Author

Course: GLP-1 receptor agonists

  • Module 1: Understanding GLP-1 receptor agonists and their modes of action:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: GLP-1 and cardiovascular disease:
    Author
  • Module 3: GLP-1 and obesity, NAFLD and NASH:
    Author

Course: Islet transplantation

  • Module 1: An introduction to islet transplantation:
    Author
  • Module 2: Pancreas and islet transplantation:
    Author
  • Module 3: Patient journeys in islet transplantation:
    Author

Course: Phenotypic variability

  • Module 1: Phenotypic variability in type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Diabetic ketoacidosis

  • Module 1: Pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Managing diabetic ketoacidosis in adults:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Preventing diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: Paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Author

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: Cardiovascular health and diabetes

  • Module 1: Diabetes and cardiovascular disease:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Cardiovascular risk and glycaemic control:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Cardiovascular outcomes in trials for the newer glucose-lowering therapies:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: The cardiovascular benefits of lowering cholesterol:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Investigating cardiovascular risk factors:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 6: Cardiovascular disease — the Steno-2 trial:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Heart failure on trial – DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced:
    Author

Course: Diabetic foot disease

  • Module 1: Diabetic foot disease — an overview:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease –how to save the limb:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: A look to the future:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: A surgical viewpoint:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: Technology and type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Basics of insulin pumping:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Continuous glucose monitoring:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Closed-loop systems:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: Diabetes and the kidney

  • Module 1: Overview of diabetes and the kidney:
    Author
  • Module 2: Diagnosing diabetic kidney disease:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Treatment modalities:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: Monitoring and follow up:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Diabetic kidney disease and other complications:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 6: The later stages of diabetic kidney disease – prevention, delay and management:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks for the use of ACE inhibitors, ARBs and SGLT-2 inhibitors:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Introduction to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Arresting type 1 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Pregestational diabetes in pregnancy

  • Module 1: Introduction and overview:
    Author
  • Module 2: Preconception care:
    Author
  • Module 3: Post-conception care:
    Author

Course: Time in range

  • Module 1: Time in range - a new concept in glycaemic management:
    Author

Course: Adjunct therapies

  • Module 1: Rationale for adjunct therapies:
    Author
  • Module 2: Different adjunct therapies:
    Author

Course: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

  • Module 1: GDM, diagnosis and screening:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Initial management and pharmacotherapy of GDM:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: GDM labour, delivery and post-partum follow-up:
    Author

Course: Diabetes and Ramadan

  • Module 1: Introduction to diabetes and Ramadan:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Physiology of fasting and the effects of Ramadan on people with diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Risk stratification and education in people with diabetes fasting during Ramadan:
    Author
  • Module 4: Managing diabetes during Ramadan:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: New guidelines on fasting during Ramadan for young people with diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 6: Using continuous glucose monitoring to guide diabetes management during Ramadan:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Applying ADA/EASD recommendations to the management of type 2 diabetes during Ramadan:
    Author
  • Module 8: COVID-19, diabetes and Ramadan:
    Author

Course: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2022 consensus report – background, rationale and components of care:
    Author
  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2018 consensus report:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: ADA/EASD 2019 update:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: SGLT-2 inhibitors

  • Module 1: History and mode of action of the drug class (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 1: Introducing SGLT-2 inhibitors: history and mode of action:
    Author
  • Module 2: Efficacy and safety (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 2: Efficacy and safety of SGLT-2 inhibitors:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Cardiovascular outcomes (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: SGLT-2 inhibitors for renal protection in diabetes:
    Author
  • Module 4: SGLT-2 inhibitors and type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: SGLT-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Renal outcomes (CREDENCE trial) (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 6: Cardiovascular outcomes update (including the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial) (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks in the use of SGLT inhibitors in type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 8: The VERTIS CV trial (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 9: Renal outcomes clinical trials update (OLD):
    Author






Expert reviewer

Chantal Mathieu is Professor of Internal Medicine and Chair of Endocrinology at the University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium. Professor Mathieu received her medical degree and PhD from KU Leuven, where she subsequently completed training in internal medicine and endocrinology.

Her clinical areas of interest include endocrinology, diabetes and the organisation of diabetes care. Her research activity is focused on the prevention of type 1 diabetes, effects of vitamin D on the immune system and diabetes, functioning of the insulin-producing beta cell, adjunct therapies in type 1 diabetes and novel glucose-lowering agents in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Professor Mathieu has authored and co-authored more than 400 peer-reviewed publications in international journals. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Diabetes and its Complications (2012-14), Endocrinology (2013-19) and JSMBM (2013-), on the advisory boards of Diabetologia (2007-11), Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology (2019-) and was Associate Editor of Diabetologia from 2003-06. In 2013, she received the prestigious InBev-Baillet Latour Prize for Clinical Research for her pioneering research on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. She presently co-ordinates the INNODIA project on prevention and intervention in type 1 diabetes in Europe.

Professor Mathieu was appointed Teacher of Trainees in Endocrinology in 1998 and has been a full professor at KU Leuven since 2002. In that time she has been programme director of Leuven’s Biomedical Sciences (2006-16), received the Best Teacher award every year between 2015 and 2018, and has supervised 18 PhD theses and over 10 masters theses.She is President of EASD and Vice President of EUDF since 2023.

Duality of Interest: Professor Mathieu has received research support/grants from Medtronic, Imcyse, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi and ActoBio Therapeutics. She has also received payments for membership of boards/advisory panels from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Merck Sharpe and Dohme Ltd., Eli Lilly and Company, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Roche, Medtronic, ActoBio Therapeutics, Pfizer, Imcyse, Insulet, Zealand Pharma, Avotres, Mannkind, Sandoz and Vertex together with speaker’s fees/ honoraria from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Eli Lilly & Company, Boehringer Ingelheim, Astra Zeneca and Novartis. 

Financial compensation for the activities above has been received by KU Leuven (University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium).

Date: Autumn 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Diabetic ketoacidosis

  • Module 1: Pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Expert reviewer

Course: Technology and type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Basics of insulin pumping:
    Expert reviewer
  • Module 2: Continuous glucose monitoring:
    Expert reviewer
  • Module 3: Closed-loop systems:
    Expert reviewer

Course: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Introduction to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author
  • Module 2: Arresting type 1 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Time in range

  • Module 1: Time in range - a new concept in glycaemic management:
    Expert reviewer

Course: Adjunct therapies

  • Module 1: Rationale for adjunct therapies:
    Expert reviewer
  • Module 2: Different adjunct therapies:
    Author

Course: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2018 consensus report:
    Expert reviewer, Co-presenter
  • Module 2: ADA/EASD 2019 update:
    Expert reviewer

Course: SGLT-2 inhibitors

  • Module 4: SGLT-2 inhibitors and type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks in the use of SGLT inhibitors in type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Expert reviewer






Assessment setter

Parizad Avari is a Speciality Trainee Specialist Registrar in diabetes and endocrinology and an Honorary Clinical Lecturer at Imperial College London, UK. Her main academic interests lie within the field of type 1 diabetes and novel technologies, including minimally invasive glucose sensors and closed-loop insulin delivery systems. She completed her PhD evaluating a smartphone based real-time personalised decision-support system for people with Type 1 diabetes in 2020.

She is actively involved in medical education, at an undergraduate and postgraduate level, and is involved in supervision of BSc and MRes students at Imperial College London.

Duality of Interest: None declared

Date: Autumn 2022

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Technology and type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Basics of insulin pumping:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Continuous glucose monitoring:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Closed-loop systems:
    Assessment setter






Assessment setter

Shivani Misra is a consultant physician in diabetes and metabolic medicine at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and an Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer within Imperial College London, UK. Dr Misra leads a portfolio of studies that investigate the genetics, epidemiology, classification and treatment of early-onset type 2 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in childhood or early-adulthood (<40 years).

Dr Misra was awarded a Future Leaders Mentorship Award from the European Federation for the Study of Diabetes (2017) and in 2021 was awarded a Quality in Care (QiC) award from NHS England for contributions to diabetes research and services. She is actively involved in medical education, including teaching both undergraduate and postgraduate students on diabetes-related topics and supervision of masters and doctoral students on projects related to diabetes.

Duality of Interest: Dr Misra has received research support / grants from, DexCom and is a trustee (no financial replacement) for the Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation.

Date: Winter 2022

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Technology and type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Basics of insulin pumping:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Continuous glucose monitoring:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Closed-loop systems:
    Assessment setter






Assessment setter

Muhammad Fahad Arshad is a Diabetes and Endocrinology Specialist and Clinical research fellow at the University of Sheffield. His research interests include hypoglcycaemia in diabetes, hyponatraemia, parathyroid and adrenal disorders.

Dr Arshad has been awarded a national Leadership and Development award from the Society for Endocrinology. He serves as an examiner for the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) exam conducted by the General Medical Council, as well as a member of the Specialty Certificate Exam (SCE) in Endocrinology question-writing group.

Duality of Interest: None declared
Date: Winter 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Management of type 1 diabetes in adults

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2021 consensus report:
    Assessment setter

Course: Multimorbidity and diabetes

  • Module 2: Diabetes in an ageing society - the role of multimorbidity:
    Assessment setter

Course: Lifestyle intervention

  • Module 1: Understanding the causes of type 2 diabetes and how to achieve remission:
    Assessment setter

Course: Beta cell biology

  • Module 1: Stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic beta cells:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Epigenetics and the beta cell:
    Assessment setter

Course: Therapeutic inertia

  • Module 2: Therapeutic inertia in type 2 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diabetes and the Hajj

  • Module 2: Diabetes, Hajj and COVID-19:
    Assessment setter

Course: Islet transplantation

  • Module 2: Pancreas and islet transplantation:
    Assessment setter

Course: Phenotypic variability

  • Module 1: Phenotypic variability in type 2 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Cardiovascular health and diabetes

  • Module 1: Diabetes and cardiovascular disease:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Investigating cardiovascular risk factors:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 6: Cardiovascular disease — the Steno-2 trial:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diabetic foot disease

  • Module 2: Neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease –how to save the limb:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diabetes and the kidney

  • Module 1: Overview of diabetes and the kidney:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Diagnosing diabetic kidney disease:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Treatment modalities:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 4: Monitoring and follow up:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Diabetic kidney disease and other complications:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks for the use of ACE inhibitors, ARBs and SGLT-2 inhibitors:
    Assessment setter

Course: Adjunct therapies

  • Module 1: Rationale for adjunct therapies:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Different adjunct therapies:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diabetes and Ramadan

  • Module 1: Introduction to diabetes and Ramadan:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 4: Managing diabetes during Ramadan:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 6: Using continuous glucose monitoring to guide diabetes management during Ramadan:
    Assessment setter

Course: SGLT-2 inhibitors

  • Module 3: SGLT-2 inhibitors for renal protection in diabetes:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Renal outcomes (CREDENCE trial) (OLD):
    Assessment setter
  • Module 9: Renal outcomes clinical trials update (OLD):
    Assessment setter






Launch date: Winter 2019 (version 1)
Updated: Spring 2023

Module duration: 1 hour