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Play the video to watch Professor Chantal Mathieu introduce the module
When talking to people living with type 1 diabetes, the most frequently asked questions are ‘When will you be able to prevent this disease?’ and ‘When will you be able to cure this disease?’ If we haven’t cured type 1 diabetes yet, it’s not because of lack of trying. In this module, we will present two big consortia who are trying to prevent and cure type 1 diabetes: TrialNet and INNODIA. We will also discuss lessons learned from all of the intervention trials that have happened to date.

If we haven’t cured type 1 diabetes yet, it’s not for lack of trying. This module discusses what lessons have been learned from intervention trials to date and presents two big consortia currently attempting to prevent and cure type 1 diabetes: TrialNet and INNODIA.

Learning outcomes

By the end of this module, you will be able to:

Interpret the evidence from current clinical trials investigating how autoimmune mechanisms may lead to the development of type 1 diabetes

Interpret the evidence from clinical intervention studies investigating the impact of immune modulation in patients with or at risk of developing type 1 diabetes

Summarise the role of the non-obese diabetic mouse in investigating the heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes and the potential benefits and challenges of intervention strategies that may prevent or arrest type 1 diabetes

Contributors

Author

Chantal Mathieu is Professor of Internal Medicine and Chair of Endocrinology at the University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium. Professor Mathieu received her medical degree and PhD from KU Leuven, where she subsequently completed training in internal medicine and endocrinology.

Her clinical areas of interest include endocrinology, diabetes and the organisation of diabetes care. Her research activity is focused on the prevention of type 1 diabetes, effects of vitamin D on the immune system and diabetes, functioning of the insulin-producing beta cell, adjunct therapies in type 1 diabetes and novel glucose-lowering agents in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Professor Mathieu has authored and co-authored more than 400 peer-reviewed publications in international journals. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Diabetes and its Complications (2012-14), Endocrinology (2013-19) and JSMBM (2013-), on the advisory boards of Diabetologia (2007-11), Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology (2019-) and was Associate Editor of Diabetologia from 2003-06. In 2013, she received the prestigious InBev-Baillet Latour Prize for Clinical Research for her pioneering research on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. She presently co-ordinates the INNODIA project on prevention and intervention in type 1 diabetes in Europe.

Professor Mathieu was appointed Teacher of Trainees in Endocrinology in 1998 and has been a full professor at KU Leuven since 2002. In that time she has been programme director of Leuven’s Biomedical Sciences (2006-16), received the Best Teacher award every year between 2015 and 2018, and has supervised 18 PhD theses and over 10 masters theses.She is President of EASD and Vice President of EUDF since 2023.

Duality of Interest: Professor Mathieu has received research support/grants from Medtronic, Imcyse, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi and ActoBio Therapeutics. She has also received payments for membership of boards/advisory panels from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Merck Sharpe and Dohme Ltd., Eli Lilly and Company, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Roche, Medtronic, ActoBio Therapeutics, Pfizer, Imcyse, Insulet, Zealand Pharma, Avotres, Mannkind, Sandoz and Vertex together with speaker’s fees/ honoraria from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Eli Lilly & Company, Boehringer Ingelheim, Astra Zeneca and Novartis. 

Financial compensation for the activities above has been received by KU Leuven (University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium).

Date: Autumn 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Diabetic ketoacidosis

  • Module 1: Pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Expert reviewer

Course: Technology and type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Basics of insulin pumping:
    Expert reviewer
  • Module 2: Continuous glucose monitoring:
    Expert reviewer
  • Module 3: Closed-loop systems:
    Expert reviewer

Course: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Introduction to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author
  • Module 2: Arresting type 1 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Time in range

  • Module 1: Time in range - a new concept in glycaemic management:
    Expert reviewer

Course: Adjunct therapies

  • Module 1: Rationale for adjunct therapies:
    Expert reviewer
  • Module 2: Different adjunct therapies:
    Author

Course: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2018 consensus report:
    Expert reviewer, Co-presenter
  • Module 2: ADA/EASD 2019 update:
    Expert reviewer

Course: SGLT-2 inhibitors

  • Module 4: SGLT-2 inhibitors and type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks in the use of SGLT inhibitors in type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Expert reviewer






Author

Eleanor Kennedy has a BSc in Biochemistry from the University of Glasgow in Scotland and a PhD in molecular neuropharmacology from the University of Leicester in England. Following three years as a postdoctoral student at the University of California, San Diego, working on thrombin-mediated gene expression in the brain, Dr Kennedy worked at the University of Geneva in Switzerland studying the intracellular signalling pathways that stimulate insulin secretion.

She subsequently undertook a full-time MBA at Cranfield School of Management, which was followed by four years as Research Manager and Director at Diabetes UK. Since 2005, she has run her own company – ED Kennedy Consulting Ltd – and has worked for a wide range of clients. These include the NIHR Diabetes Research Network, the NIHR Dementia and Neurodegenerative Disease Research Network, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, Diabetes UK, the Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation, the Diabetes Wellness Network Sweden, the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, the Royal College of Pathologists, the Department of Health and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes.

With over a decade of teaching experience with the Open University and in running diabetes diploma initiatives with the British Medical Journal and in setting up other blended learning projects for clients in the Middle East, Eleanor also continues to be a regular contributor to diabetes publications covering research and development for lay and specialist audiences.

In 2018, Dr Kennedy was commissioned to create and build the platform for the EASD’s e-learning programme and continues this work today as Programme Director for the project.

Duality of interest: None declared
Date: Winter 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Management of type 1 diabetes in adults

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2021 consensus report:
    Author

Course: Multimorbidity and diabetes

  • Module 1: Type 1 diabetes and comorbidity:
    Author
  • Module 2: Diabetes in an ageing society - the role of multimorbidity:
    Author

Course: Lifestyle intervention

  • Module 1: Understanding the causes of type 2 diabetes and how to achieve remission:
    Author
  • Module 2: Promoting physical activity for people with diabetes: an overview:
    Author

Course: Beta cell biology

  • Module 1: Stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic beta cells:
    Author
  • Module 2: Epigenetics and the beta cell:
    Author
  • Module 3: Exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells and its role in type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Patient education and support

  • Module 1: An introduction to patient education in diabetes:
    Author

Course: Diabetic neuropathy

  • Module 1: Screening and diagnosis of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Author
  • Module 2: Pathophysiology and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Author
  • Module 3: Management of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Author

Course: Metabolic surgery

  • Module 1: Mechanisms of metabolic surgery:
    Author
  • Module 2: Metabolic surgery for obesity and type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Hypoglycaemia

  • Module 1: Reducing hypoglycaemia:
    Author
  • Module 2: Hypoglycaemia in older people:
    Author
  • Module 3: Fear of hypoglycaemia:
    Author

Course: Obesity and diabetes

  • Module 1: Obesity and the pathogenesis and outcomes of type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  • Module 1: NAFLD — epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis:
    Author
  • Module 2: NAFLD — prevention and treatment:
    Author

Course: Real-world evidence

  • Module 1: An introduction to real-world evidence:
    Author

Course: Insulin resistance

  • Module 1: Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Therapeutic inertia

  • Module 1: Therapeutic inertia in primary care:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Therapeutic inertia in type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Diabetes and the Hajj

  • Module 1: Practical management of diabetes during Hajj:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Diabetes, Hajj and COVID-19:
    Author

Course: GLP-1 receptor agonists

  • Module 1: Understanding GLP-1 receptor agonists and their modes of action:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: GLP-1 and cardiovascular disease:
    Author
  • Module 3: GLP-1 and obesity, NAFLD and NASH:
    Author

Course: Islet transplantation

  • Module 1: An introduction to islet transplantation:
    Author
  • Module 2: Pancreas and islet transplantation:
    Author
  • Module 3: Patient journeys in islet transplantation:
    Author

Course: Phenotypic variability

  • Module 1: Phenotypic variability in type 2 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Diabetic ketoacidosis

  • Module 1: Pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Managing diabetic ketoacidosis in adults:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Preventing diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: Paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis:
    Author

Course: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Incidence and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: Cardiovascular health and diabetes

  • Module 1: Diabetes and cardiovascular disease:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Cardiovascular risk and glycaemic control:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Cardiovascular outcomes in trials for the newer glucose-lowering therapies:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: The cardiovascular benefits of lowering cholesterol:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Investigating cardiovascular risk factors:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 6: Cardiovascular disease — the Steno-2 trial:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Heart failure on trial – DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced:
    Author

Course: Diabetic foot disease

  • Module 1: Diabetic foot disease — an overview:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease –how to save the limb:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: A look to the future:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: A surgical viewpoint:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: Technology and type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Basics of insulin pumping:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Continuous glucose monitoring:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Closed-loop systems:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: Diabetes and the kidney

  • Module 1: Overview of diabetes and the kidney:
    Author
  • Module 2: Diagnosing diabetic kidney disease:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Treatment modalities:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: Monitoring and follow up:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Diabetic kidney disease and other complications:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 6: The later stages of diabetic kidney disease – prevention, delay and management:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks for the use of ACE inhibitors, ARBs and SGLT-2 inhibitors:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Introduction to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Arresting type 1 diabetes:
    Author

Course: Pregestational diabetes in pregnancy

  • Module 1: Introduction and overview:
    Author
  • Module 2: Preconception care:
    Author
  • Module 3: Post-conception care:
    Author

Course: Time in range

  • Module 1: Time in range - a new concept in glycaemic management:
    Author

Course: Adjunct therapies

  • Module 1: Rationale for adjunct therapies:
    Author
  • Module 2: Different adjunct therapies:
    Author

Course: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

  • Module 1: GDM, diagnosis and screening:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Initial management and pharmacotherapy of GDM:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: GDM labour, delivery and post-partum follow-up:
    Author

Course: Diabetes and Ramadan

  • Module 1: Introduction to diabetes and Ramadan:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Physiology of fasting and the effects of Ramadan on people with diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Risk stratification and education in people with diabetes fasting during Ramadan:
    Author
  • Module 4: Managing diabetes during Ramadan:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: New guidelines on fasting during Ramadan for young people with diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 6: Using continuous glucose monitoring to guide diabetes management during Ramadan:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Applying ADA/EASD recommendations to the management of type 2 diabetes during Ramadan:
    Author
  • Module 8: COVID-19, diabetes and Ramadan:
    Author

Course: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2022 consensus report – background, rationale and components of care:
    Author
  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2018 consensus report:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: ADA/EASD 2019 update:
    Author, Assessment setter

Course: SGLT-2 inhibitors

  • Module 1: History and mode of action of the drug class (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 1: Introducing SGLT-2 inhibitors: history and mode of action:
    Author
  • Module 2: Efficacy and safety (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 2: Efficacy and safety of SGLT-2 inhibitors:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Cardiovascular outcomes (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 3: SGLT-2 inhibitors for renal protection in diabetes:
    Author
  • Module 4: SGLT-2 inhibitors and type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 4: SGLT-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes:
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 5: Renal outcomes (CREDENCE trial) (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 6: Cardiovascular outcomes update (including the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial) (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 7: Tips and tricks in the use of SGLT inhibitors in type 1 diabetes (OLD):
    Author
  • Module 8: The VERTIS CV trial (OLD):
    Author, Assessment setter
  • Module 9: Renal outcomes clinical trials update (OLD):
    Author






Expert reviewer, Assessment setter

Susan Wong trained in medicine at Kings College London, where she also gained her PhD before moving on to work at Yale University, USA. She was later awarded a Wellcome Trust Senior Clinical Fellowship in the UK and established a laboratory at Bristol University. She went on to work at Cardiff University and is now a Professor of Experimental Diabetes and Metabolism at the School of Medicine and Honorary Consultant Physician in Diabetes at the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff.

Professor Wong has many years of research experience looking at the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes. Her research primarily focuses on causes and development of type 1 diabetes and has encompassed T cell immunology, B cell immunology, regulatory T cells, innate immunity and, more recently, the role of the gut microbiome. She is a member of the UK Type 1 Diabetes Consortium and, in this role, and works on a number of projects developing immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes and in early phase 1a clinical trials.

She has published more than 150 articles and is on the editorial board of Current Molecular Medicine and Scientific Reports. She has been Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for JDRF UK, is Deputy Chair of the Clinical Studies Group I (Pathogenesis of diabetes) of Diabetes UK, and a member of the Type 1 Diabetes UK Consortium management board. She has served on grant review panels of the NIH (Special Emphasis Diabetes), MRC, JDRF, Diabetes UK, and Hong Kong Research General Council. During her career, she has been awarded several accolades, including the Diabetes UK Dorothy Hodgkin award lecturer in 2018,  Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales in 2019 and JDRF Gerold and Kayla Grodsky award in 2021.

Duality of interest: None declared

Date: Summer 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 1: Introduction to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes:
    Expert reviewer, Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Arresting type 1 diabetes:
    Expert reviewer, Assessment setter






Assessment setter

Yanislava Karusheva undertook her medical training at Charite Berlin, Germany, and the Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria. She is a clinician scientist at the Institute for Clinical Diabetology of the German Diabetes Center in Düsseldorf, Germany. She is currently working as a visiting clinical academic fellow at the Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science and the Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge under the guidance of Professor Sir Stephen O’Rahilly. Her interests include clinical nutrition and metabolism, insulin resistance, obesity treatment and deep metabolic phenotyping. In 2018, Dr Karusheva completed the EASD Robert Turner Course in Oxford. In 2021, she received the Hans Adolf Krebs Award of the German Nutrition Society, the DDG Sponsorship Award of the German Diabetes Association and the Walter Benjamin Scholarship of the German Research Foundation for her fellowship in Cambridge. Her most recent research focuses on the different roles of GDF15 and rare diseases.

Duality of Interest: None declared
Date: Autumn 2023

Contribution to the EASD e-Learning programme

Course: Beta cell biology

  • Module 2: Epigenetics and the beta cell:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diabetic neuropathy

  • Module 2: Pathophysiology and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Management of painful diabetic neuropathy:
    Assessment setter

Course: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  • Module 1: NAFLD — epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: NAFLD — prevention and treatment:
    Assessment setter

Course: Insulin resistance

  • Module 1: Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Therapeutic inertia

  • Module 2: Therapeutic inertia in type 2 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: GLP-1 receptor agonists

  • Module 1: Understanding GLP-1 receptor agonists and their modes of action:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: GLP-1 and cardiovascular disease:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 3: GLP-1 and obesity, NAFLD and NASH:
    Assessment setter

Course: Islet transplantation

  • Module 2: Pancreas and islet transplantation:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 3: Patient journeys in islet transplantation:
    Assessment setter

Course: Phenotypic variability

  • Module 1: Phenotypic variability in type 2 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Diabetic foot disease

  • Module 1: Diabetic foot disease — an overview:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 2: Neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease –how to save the limb:
    Assessment setter
  • Module 4: A surgical viewpoint:
    Assessment setter

Course: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

  • Module 2: Arresting type 1 diabetes:
    Assessment setter

Course: Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes

  • Module 1: ADA/EASD 2022 consensus report – background, rationale and components of care:
    Assessment setter






Launch date: Autumn 2019 (version 1)
Updated: Summer 2022 (version 3)

Module duration: 1 hour