We've changed the way you complete courses

In response to user feedback we have simplified the way courses can be completed.

Until now you needed to complete the topics and modules in order, from start to finish. But from today you can complete them in any order you wish.

Just visit any topic that interests you, and when you are ready mark it as completed by clicking the green 'Mark complete' button at the bottom of the page.

Once you have completed all of the topics in a module an assessment will be provided for you.

Complete all the assessments to finish the course.

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The disease process leading to type 1 diabetes starts months or even years before the appearance of clinical symptoms. The duration of the asymptomatic preclinical period is highly individual. It may be a fast process — over a couple of months — and it may also take more than 20 years after the first appearance of diabetes-associated autoantibodies.

Natural history of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

  • Preclinical diabetes (may last for a few months up to 20 years)
  • Diagnosis of clinical disease
  • Correction of the metabolic derangements present at diagnosis
  • The remission or ‘honeymoon’ phase: on commencing treatment, children very often experience a partial remission, which may last from a few months up to a few years
  • The end of endogenous insulin secretion, which leads to an increased need for exogenous insulin
  • Puberty and the phase of rapid growth
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FPIR: first-phase insulin response
GADA: glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies
IA-2A: insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies
IAA: insulin autoantibodies
ICA: islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies
IGT: impaired glucose tolerance
ZnT8A: zinc transporter-8 autoantibodies